"[Your letter] illustrates the excellence of a system which, by a due distinction, to which the genius and courage of Luther led the way, between what is due to Caesar and what is due to God, best promotes the discharge of both obligations. The experience of the United States is a happy disproof of the error so long rooted in the unenlightened minds of well-meaning Christians, as well as in the corrupt hearts of persecuting usurpers, that without a legal incorporation of religious and civil polity, neither could be supported. A mutual independence is found most friendly to practical religion, to social harmony, and to political prosperity."
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This is from James Madison in a letter written to P. L. Schaeffer in December of 1821. Madison praises Luther's two kingdoms doctrine and sees it as the basis for keeping ecclesiastical and civil power distinct in the US Constitution.