Social Network Links
Search the Riddleblog
"Amillennialism 101" -- Audio and On-Line Resources


Living in Light of Two Ages



Hitler as an Antichrist Figure









How did this ordinary-looking child become an antichrist, as the maniacal leader of a "Christian" nation such as Germany?

Uncovering the answer to this question has kept plenty of capable historians busy since the Second World War.  But evangelical theologians and Bible prophecy experts, who may have genuine insight into an answer, have largely remained silent. 

One reason for this silence regarding Adolf Hitler as an antichrist figure is that many who write in the field of eschatology these days tend to push the discussion of the two beasts in Revelation 13 back into the distant past.  In Revelation 13, John sees one beast rising out of the sea (Rev. 13:1-10), and another beast rising out of the earth (Rev. 13:11-18).  This understanding of Revelation 13 is obvious because of the historical connection between these two "beasts" and imperial Rome.  This is characteristic of the preterist reading of Revelation--which contends that the Apocalypse was written before A.D. 70 and speaks of the destruction of Jerusalem, it's temple, and God's judgment upon Israel in the form of the Diaspora. 

Others interested in biblical prophecy (the futurists) tend to see the events of Revelation 13 as something yet to come during a future tribulation period.  Many futurists see John's description as a prophetic warning of a revived Roman empire, unleashing its full fury in the final days upon those who remain "left behind" after the rapture, now forced to face the Antichrist during the seven-year tribulation period.

On both of these views, there is no reason to look for "antichrists" manifesting themselves during the inter-advental period--i.e., in the present course of history.  Either the beast has come and gone (the preterist view), or is yet to come (the futurist view).  Although some futurists identified Hitler as the beast and Mussolini as the false prophet in the years before the Second World War, now that these two famed fascists have met their respective fates, there is little reason to connect them any more to anything prophetic such as antichrist.

As I have argued in my book The Man of Sin, the preterist identification of the two beasts of Revelation 13 with Rome is largely correct, but significantly errs by not seeing the first-century Roman empire's persecution of Christians as an example of the kind of persecution Christians should expect throughout the entire inter-advental period.  In other words, what John describes in Revelation 13, is a reality for the seven churches to which the Book of Revelation (Rev. 2-3) is addressed.  But it is also indicative of the kind of persecution Christians will face at various times and places throughout the entire inter-advental period.  To put it yet another way, the two beasts are historically tied to Rome, but they also epitomize subsequent manifestations of Satanic opposition to Christ's church and his people, until the Lord returns.

Whenever I lecture on the doctrine of Antichrist, I appeal to Nazi Germany as but one relatively recent, and rather obvious illustration of what I mean when I speak of the two antichrist threats that Christians must face before Christ returns--one internal (heresy) and one external (persecution).  My view is that these two on-going threats coalesce at the time of the end with a person who we call "the" Antichrist, who is destroyed by Christ at his second coming (cf. 2 Thess. 2:8; Rev. 20:10).

In his first two epistles, John speaks of antichrist in a very narrow sense--as an internal threat to the churches (1 John 2:18, 22; 4:3; 2 John 1:7).  John's "antichrists" are a present reality for the churches of the first century, there are already many of them present, and they take the form of teachers of a pernicious heresy which denies that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh (docetism). 

The beast motif in Revelation 13 represents the other threat to the church (external).  This, in my estimation, applies to nations and their leaders, of which Adolf Hitler and the Germany of 1933-1945 are prime examples.  On this view, the continually resurrected Roman beast refers to those nations and/or their leaders who claim divine privileges and prerogatives unto themselves, and who, therefore, hate the people of God, because of their confession that "Jesus is Lord". This confession also means that the beast is not. 

Nothing offends an antichrist figure like an Adolf Hitler more than a Christian who refuses to give the Nazi salute or bless the Nazi cause.  Whenever a Christian confesses that "Jesus is Lord," they are simultaneously confessing that Der Fuhrer himself is Jesus' subject, and will, one day, find himself standing before Jesus on the day of judgment, when he will bow against his will, before he enters eternal judgment.

Historians have accidentally come quite close to acknowledging this biblical perspective when they seek to understand how someone like Hitler--a nobody with little or no chance of succeeding at anything in life--came to power in Germany through the most unlikely, yet remarkable of circumstances.

Ian Kershaw, who has written what many consider to be the definitive biography of Hitler, writes,

A history of Hitler therefore has to be the history of his power--how he came to get it, what his character was, how he exercised it, why he was allowed to expand it to break all international barriers, why resistance to that power was so feeble.  Hubris, xxvii

Kershaw goes on to say,

Hitler was no tyrant imposed upon Germany.  Though he never attained majority support in free elections, he was legally appointed to power as Reich Chancellor just like his predecessors had been, and became between 1933 and 1940 arguably the most popular head of state in the world. . . . Hitler's impact can only be grasped through the era which produced him (and was destroyed by him). Hubris, xxix

Yet, as Kershaw concludes,

No attempt to produce a comprehensive understanding of the phenomena of Nazism without doing justice to the "Hitler factor" can hope to succeed.  But such an interpretation must not only take into full account of Hitler's ideological goals, his actions, and his personal input into the shaping of events; it must at the same time locate these within the social forces and political structures which permitted, shaped, and promoted the growth of a system that came increasingly to hinge on personalized, absolute power -- with the disastrous effects that flowed from it.  Hubris, xxix-xxx

Kershaw's comprehensive two-volume biography (and abridged one volume edition) does this as well as any historian can (Hubris; Nemesis, Hitler).  But I would humbly suggest that there is a theological explanation to consider as well.

Hitler as Beast -- The Persecutor of God's People

When I contend that Hitler is but one manifestation of the kind of thing John is warning Christians about in Revelation 13, I too am looking at the amazing rise of Hitler in context (as Kershaw does), yet from a different perspective--the vantage point of the New Testament and its doctrine of antichrist.  John warns the people of God that the Dragon (Satan) ultimately lies behind the various iterations of the beast--including that of Hitler and his Third Reich.

From the photo above (taken in 1941), Hitler and his cronies thought nothing of celebrating a Nazi "Christmas" whose cause was confirmed by a virtual unbroken streak of military victories and conquests of European nations.  Hitler's armies would soon flounder on the Russian steppes and America's industrial and military might (ironically, it was Hitler who declared war on December 11, 1941, around the time this photo was taken) had not yet begun to influence the war.  But my primary concern in this brief essay is not with geopolitics, but with Hitler's (and his regime's) open contempt for professing Christians who refused to be silent about the gospel in the face of Nazi persecution.  This is one of the key traits of a biblical "antichrist."

A concrete illustration of what I mean is helpful here.  In a wonderful essay in First Things, Timothy George describes the martyrdom of "Paul Robert Schneider (1897-1939) [who] was the first Protestant pastor to die in a concentration camp at the hands of the Nazis. His story is one of unmitigated courage, self-sacrifice, and martyrdom."  Not a well-known theologian, "Paul Schneider, rather, was an obscure village pastor who could have escaped persecution completely had he simply been willing to keep his mouth shut."

As Dr. George tells the story, Schneider was the new pastor at a small church in Hochelheim.

Schneider had been there hardly a month when he was asked to preside at the funeral of a seventeen-year-old member of the Hitler Youth named Karl Moog. Before the benediction had been pronounced, the local Nazi district leader, Heinrich Nadig, interrupted the service to declare that young Karl had now crossed over into the heavenly storm troop of Horst Wessel, to which Schneider replied: “I do not know if there is a storm of Horst Wessel in eternity, but may the Lord God bless your departure from time and your entry into eternity.”

Those who died in the service of the Nazis, like young Karl Moog, were summoned to join the Wessel storm troop above. Just six months prior to the funeral incident, the Nazi bimonthly Der Brunnen declared: “How high Horst Wessel towers over that Jesus of Nazareth—that Jesus who pleaded that the bitter cup be taken from him. How unattainably high all Horst Wessels stand above Jesus!”

Pastor Schneider refused to subordinate the Christian Gospel to such a pagan myth. When Nadig repeated his graveside claim about Horst Wessel, Schneider said: “I protest. This is a church ceremony, and as a Protestant pastor, I am responsible for the pure teaching of the Holy Scriptures.”

For his actions, Pastor Schenieder was arrested and served a five day sentence.  In a letter to Heinrich Nadig, Pr. Schneider explained that,

In a Protestant church ceremony God’s voice has to be clearly heard from the Holy Scriptures. Our church people are liberalized enough, so it is no longer appropriate to allow just any opinion to be expressed in the church. There can no longer be any place for this because especially at a church funeral the seriousness of eternity does not tolerate being measured by human standards. Therefore, not everyone who does his duty in the Hitler Youth or the SA fairly well can be beatified. I will certainly accept the earthly storm of Horst Wessel, but that does not mean by a long shot that God will allow him to march straight into eternal salvation. That is perhaps “German faith,” but it is not biblically based Christian faith that takes seriously the full reality of sin that is so deeply rooted in the heart and life of man.

As a consequence, Schneider came under the gaze of the Gestapo.  After four years of subsequent arrests, and open persecution, Schneider still refused to back down.  He was removed from his church, but kept preaching where and when he could.  On Sunday October 3, 1937, the Harvest Thanksgiving, Schneider preached a sermon on Psalm 145:15-21.  It was his last.

According to Timothy George,

He began the sermon by acknowledging how incongruous it might seem to be giving thanks “in this year of our church’s hardship.” Yet this is precisely what the psalmist calls us to do—to give thanks for the material blessings of harvest and home and also for the generous gifts of God in Word, sacrament, and worship. Yet God’s Word does not come cheap, Schneider said. “Confessing Jesus will carry a price. For his sake we will come into much distress and danger, much shame and persecution. Happy the man who does not turn aside from these consequences.”

The consequences were just what we would expect of the beastial Germany of Hitler and the National Socialists.  Schneider was arrested, sent to Buchenwald, and given the number 2491.

George tells the glorious end of this heroic martyr under the demonic Hitlerian regime

On July 18, 1939, he was killed by the camp doctor who administered a lethal injection of strophanthin. Gretel drove to Buchenwald and retrieved the body of Paul Schneider and returned it to Dickenschied for burial. Hundreds of people swarmed the village for Schneider’s funeral. Many pastors, including the priest of the local Catholic Church, joined the procession to the cemetery. One of the Gestapo officers sent to observe the proceedings remarked to one of the pastors, “This is the way kings are buried!” to which the pastor replied: “Hardly! What is happening here is that a blood witness of Jesus Christ is borne to the grave.”  

Conclusion:  Hitler as Antichrist Figure

Adolf Hitler did not personally put Rev. Paul Schneider to death.  Hitler probably never knew his name, or remotely cared that he was one of countless people--including a number of faithful Protestant pastors--who were put to death at the hands of the Nazis.  The pastor's crime?  Preaching Christ and him crucified, and then challenging those religious myths which developed in "Christian" Germany, and which gave credence to the Nazi cause as only civil religion can.

As Kershaw points out above, the story of Hitler's rise to power is complex and clearly tied to both the age, and nation which produced him.  But the historical question Kershaw raises still seeks an answer--what is the source of Hitler's power?  As a Christian, I can attempt an answer to that most compelling but unanswered question.  If my reading of John and Revelation 13 is correct, then in the providence of God, the Dragon (Satan) was allowed to empower the beast (this time in the form of National Socialism) to wage war upon the saints, and for a time, appear to triumph over them (Rev. 13:7). 

Yet when Rev. Schneider breathed his last, he immediately joined the vast multitude of those who have entered the heavenly presence of the Lord of his church (Rev. 20:4).  Rev. Schneider, and those like him, now live and reign for a "thousand years."  This is rather ironic, is it not, when Hitler's thousand-year Reich lasted a mere twelve years (1933-1945), and its Fuhrer is now one of the most despised figures in human history?

It is in this sense, then, that Hitler is an antichrist figure, and John is indeed warning Christians about Hitler and those like him, who will repeatedly rise from the sea and the earth, until Jesus comes again.


Cranfield's "On Romans"

I thought this might be of interest to some of you (the Logos users among you).

Charles Cranfield's book, On Romans:  And Other new Testament Essays, is free from Logos if you merely sign up for their Logos Reformed email list.

Here's the link. Logos Reformed Base packages

This is a great deal because Cranfield's helpful little book sells for well over 40 bucks in paperback on Amazon! 


"Kiss the Son" -- A Sermon on Psalm 2 

A Sermon on Psalm 2

I am amazed at the level of interest by Americans with the doings of the British Royals.  There is something about a royal wedding or the coronation of a king or queen which fascinates us.  While our founding fathers didn’t think too highly of King George III, contemporary Americans absolutely loved Lady Di and Kate Middleton.  And given the age of the current queen, many of us will live to see the next in-line (Charles or William) take the throne as king of the United Kingdom.  No doubt, this coronation will be watched and talked about by many of us.  But in the historical background of all modern coronations of European and western royalty we find Psalm 2, which was written for the coronation of a Davidic king, and which set the pattern for the coronation of the kings and queens of Christendom ever since.  The second Psalm is quoted throughout the New Testament as a prophetic reference to a messianic king (Jesus Christ) whose kingdom conquers all, and who will bring about universal peace in the midst of the turmoil and upheaval of the nations.  It is Charles Spurgeon who exhorts us “let us read [Psalm 2] with the eyes of faith, beholding . . . the final triumph of our Lord Jesus Christ over all his enemies.”

As we continue our series on select Psalms, we take up a study of the second Psalm, which is often classified as a royal Psalm because this Psalm concerns the anointing and coronation of a Davidic king–that is, someone in the line of David.  Because it is a royal Psalm, it is also a messianic Psalm.  As we work our way through this Psalm, I would like to accomplish three things.  First, we will spend some time on the historical background of the Psalm.  Second, we will then work through the Psalm and its specific contents.  Finally, as we go through the Psalm we will consider how it is cited throughout the New Testament, especially in reference to the preaching of the apostles, who quote this Psalm on several occasions in reference to the person and work of Jesus Christ, Israel’s Messiah. 

We begin with the historical background of this Psalm which is found in the first book of the Psalter (Psalms 1-41), and which is considered by many to be a summary or an introduction to the balance of the Psalter (along with Psalm 1).  The question of authorship of this Psalm is interesting because in the New Testament the authorship of this Psalm is specifically attributed to David (Acts 4:25).  Yet, at least one verse in the Psalm (v. 3) speaks of a time of mutiny among the nations, a factor not present during the reign of David.  Because of this time of distress, scholars have had a hard time agreeing about whether David composed this Psalm, or if it was written later for the coronation of a Davidic king as depicted in a passage such as 2 Kings 11:12, where we read of coronation of Joash, “then he brought out the king's son and put the crown on him and gave him the testimony.  And they proclaimed him king and anointed him, and they clapped their hands and said, `Long live the king!’”  The resolution to this dilemma may be as simple as realizing the fact that this Psalm might have been composed by David and used by successive generations of Davidic kings during their own coronations. 

To read the rest of this sermon:  Click Here


This Week at Christ Reformed Church (May 26-June 1)

Sunday Morning (June 1, 2014):  Rev. Andrea Ferrari (a URC minister from Milan, Italy) will be preaching.  Rev. Ferrari's sermon is entitled "The Seventh Word of Jesus from the Cross."  His texts will be Psalm 31 and Luke 23:46.

Sunday AfternoonI am continuing with my series on the Canons of Dort.  We are covering the third/fourth head of doctrine, article 7 which deals with the power of the gospel to save. The catechism service begins @ 1:15 p.m. 

Wednesday Night Bible Study (May 28, 2014):  In our "Studies in the Book of Revelation," we are finishing up Revelation 19 and our discussion of the Marriage Supper of Christ the lamb.  Bible Study begins at 7:30 p.m.

Friday Night Academy (May 30):  We are continuing our series "In the Land of Nod" dealing with the two kingdoms.  As we move into part two of the series, my lecture is entitled, "A Church-Driven Purpose:  The Marks and Mission of Christ's Church" (Part 2).

If you wish to catch-up and review the previous lectures in this series, you can find them here:  Audio of Academy Lectures

For more information and directions, check out the Christ Reformed website:  Christ Reformed Church


"Be Still and Know That I Am God" -- Psalm 46:1-11

Here's the audio from this morning's sermon on Psalm 46.  Click Here


Audio from Friday Night's Academy Lecture (5/23/14)

Here's the audio from Friday Night's Academy lecture.  We've moved into part two of our series, "The Land of Nod."

This lecture deals with the "Marks and Mission of the Church":  Click Here


This Week's White Horse Inn

Keeping Our Kids (Part 2)

Continuing the conversation, Greg Koukl, Brett Kunkle, and Mike Horton discuss the importance of preparing our youth for a life of faith in a secular age. Not only should they be taught what they believe and why, but before they leave home, they should also be given some basic training in how to communicate their faith and how to answer those with opposing points of view.

Click Here


Friday Feature -- The Ultimate Insult

From one of my favorite movies--the Sandlot.  Anyone else have a summer in which you did pretty much nothing but play baseball ("over the line") from breakfast until the street lights came on--the universal signal to head for home and call it a day.

This is still a great insult, and it surfaces every year during the Christ Reformed Church picnic.


Modern Paganism, Rich People, and Sister Aimee

It is easy to think of pagan rituals as something tied to the ancient past.  This photo essay of contemporary images of European paganism is not only creepy, but a reminder of how prone the human heart is to worship the earth and its creatures.  Seems like Paul knew what he was talking about in Romans 1.  Pagan Rituals

Who are the twenty-five richest people who ever lived (adjusted for inflation)?  Only two contemporary Americans made the list.  You get two gold stars if you've even heard of the richest guy (# 1).  The 25 Richest People

Here's an interesting essay (complete with photos, then and now) on Aimee Semple McPherson's Angelus Temple--she was a huge national celebrity complete with the scandals to go with it, and Angelus Temple was LA's first mega-church.  Chuck Smith and Jack Hayford's theological roots are here as well.  Sister and Angelus Temple


"Blessed Is the Man" -- Psalm 1

A Sermon on Psalm 1

The Book of Psalms was the hymnal of ancient Israel, composed of 150 songs which reflect a whole range of human emotions from despair to jubilation.  The Psalter is divided into five books, written by different authors over the course of much of Israel’s history.  But the Psalms are closely tied to the life and times of David (Israel’s most prominent king), and many of the Psalms reflect Israel’s worship of YHWH during this turbulent period in the nation’s history.  The Psalter is one of the most beloved portions of God’s word, and the book of Psalms provides Christ’s church with its song, and serves as the foundation for much of the devotional life of God’s people.

We begin a new series on the Book of Psalms.  The goal of this series is direct our attention to select Psalms so as to stir in our hearts a desire to read, study, reflect upon, and sing this wonderful portion of God’s word.  The more we know about the book of Psalms, the greater our desire to read and sing them as God’s people have done throughout the ages.  During this series we will cover select Psalms ascribed to various writers (i.e., David, Moses, Asaph, the Sons of Korah).  We will also look at different types and genres of Psalms.  There are Psalms of praise, Psalms of lament (sixty-seven of them), there are imprecatory Psalms (which invoke God’s judgment on his enemies), there are messianic Psalms (which prefigure the coming of Christ), there are “enthronement” Psalms (which speak of God as king and ruler of all), there are wisdom Psalms (which reveal to us wisdom from God), and there are Psalms of trust, (which express confidence in God’s power, and in God’s faithfulness in keeping his covenant promises.  And we will look at some of our favorite Psalms, such as the so-called “Shepherd Psalm’ (Psalm 23).

There are a number of names attached to the 150 Psalms.  73 of the Psalms are ascribed to David (king of Israel).  Twelve Psalms are ascribed to Asaph (who was one of David’s three temple musicians, along with Heman and Jeduthun).  Eleven Psalms are ascribed to the Sons of Korah (who were a guild of temple singers), three are ascribed to Jeduthun (a Levite), two are connected to Solomon, as well as one each to Moses, Heman (a grandson of Samuel), and Ethan (a symbol player in David’s court and thought by some to be another name for Jeduthun).  The remainder of the Psalms are unattributed.  With the exception of Moses, the others to whom various Psalms are ascribed are mentioned throughout the two books of Chronicles, so we know certain details about them and their service of YHWH.  So even through not all of the Psalms were written by David, it is reasonable to speak, as many do, of the “Psalms of David” since the vast majority of them are ascribed to David or his known associates.

The Psalter is divided into five books, which, as some have suggested, mirror the five books of the Moses (the Pentateuch).  Book One includes the first 41 Psalms–all of which (with the exception of a couple of unattributed Psalms) are ascribed to David.  Most of these Psalms speak of distress and trial, and there is a constant refrain throughout Book One that God alone can save his people.  Book Two (Psalm 42-72) includes several Psalms attributed to the Sons of Korah, and one ascribed to Asaph (Psalm 50).  These Psalms include various laments and prayers for deliverance during times of trouble.  Book Two ends with a Psalm ascribed to Solomon (Psalm 72), a royal Psalm with strong messianic themes.

To read the rest of this sermon:   Click Here

Page 1 ... 3 4 5 6 7 ... 255 Next 10 Entries »